Share/Save

Collectors

Braithwaite Batty, Mrs. Beatrice

Secondary Collector

Probable Primary Collector: Reverend (later Bishop) John Horden Beatrice Braithwaite Batty was married to Rev. Robert Braithwaite Batty, fellow and associate tutor at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. In 1860 at age 30, he became a missionary of the Church Missionary Society (CSM), serving briefly with the Punjab mission until his premature death in 1861. His widow then became secretary to the Coral Missionary Society and editor of the Coral magazine, as well as author of several books.

Amongst the latter is Forty-Two Years Among the Indians and Eskimos, published in 1893, the story of the tenure in the north of Rev. John Horden, CMS missionary at Moose Factory in the last half of the 19th century. Consecrated in 1872, John Horden became the first bishop of Moosonee. Horden learned Cree, trained native clergy and brought in a printing press with which he produced numerous religious works written in syllabics. To further spread the word, he travelled extensively to Cree settlements on both sides of James Bay. Due to his efforts, Christianity gained a foothold amongst the people of the region.

As an editor, Mrs. Batty was in frequent correspondence with Rev. Horden, who responded at length to her queries about his surroundings, his daily life and the Cree. Several items in the Virtual Collection are catalogued as having been collected by Mrs. Batty. Given that Mrs. Batty was never in James Bay, and given her relationship with Reverend Horden, it is probable these objects were gifts from Horden. In 1923 they were given to the British Museum.

Top

Clark, Baillie John

Primary Collector

Scottish-born John Clark began his service with the Hudson’s Bay Company on June 4th, 1859, and retired in 1881. His first position was as labourer, gradually rising through the ranks as postmaster, clerk, and finally, clerk-in-charge.

According to letters written by Clark’s granddaughter in the 1960s, Clark’s items in the Virtual Collection were obtained at Little Whale River about 1860. Despite the letters, this date is not certain as Clark worked at several posts during his years of service. In sequence, they are: Moose Factory (1859-1861); Abitibi (1861-1866); Eastmain (1866-1871); Little Whale River (1871-1873); Fort George (1873-1875); Little Whale River, again (1875-1878); and finally, Martens Falls (Albany District, 1878-1881). Clark could have collected the objects in 1860; or perhaps, he obtained them during one of his stints working at Little Whale River a little later. Alternatively, maybe the items came from one of the other posts where he worked. On the other hand, his wife (or wives), who was most likely Cree and who could have come from Little Whale River,1 might have made them.

Top

Col. John Lefroy

Top

Gibson, Jabez

Secondary Collector

Jabez Gibson (1794-1838), a member of a prominent Quaker family of bankers, was a major figure in Saffron Walden. He was the leading maltster1 and brewery owner. Using his wealth, Gibson was a founding member of the Saffron Walden town library and was instrumental in forming the local historical society, which, a year after its inception, began a museum. Materials acquired from the English colonies were used to establish the museum’s collection. As there is no evidence Gibson ever visited Canada, it is likely he obtained the belt featured in the Virtual Collection from one of his colonial sources.

Top

Hadlock Jr., Captain Samuel

Possibly Primary Collector

Tired of whaling, Captain Samuel Hadlock Jr. (1792-1830), a whaleboat captain from the Cranberry Isles, Maine, began to collect ethnographic “curiosities” for a travelling exhibition. In 1821, with a personally-acquired collection of materials from the Labrador area, and an Inuit couple from Baffin Island, Hadlock began a four-year tour of cities in England, Scotland, Ireland, France and Germany. The exhibition included a display that mingled totally unrelated artifacts from the northern and southern hemispheres, as well as a sideshow in which the Inuit couple demonstrated fishing, hunting and other skills; a pamphlet filled with misinformation accompanied the show.

The spectacle, a forerunner of the Buffalo Bill Cody and P.T. Barnum shows, was performed for royalty in palace gardens and at village fairs. Before reaching the Continent, however, the female Inuk died and was replaced by people Hadlock thought could pass as “Eskimo”. Hadlock returned to Maine after the surviving Inuk died. Before doing so, he sold many pieces, including a pair of leggings displayed in the Virtual Collection, to European museums and collectors. He died during a whaling expedition off the coast of Newfoundland.

Top

Haydon, Walter, Esquire

Nothing is currently known about Mr. Haydon.
Top

Hooper, Lieutenant W.H.

Primary Collector

Little is known about Lieutenant W.H. Hooper. In 1821, he was the purser on William Edward Parry’s second expedition in search of the Northwest Passage, the inland route to the Pacific Ocean, which had eluded European explorers for centuries. He and his crew spent two winters on ice unsuccessfully looking for a navigable channel to exit the west side of Hudson Bay. A quarter of a century later, Hooper participated in one of the many expeditions sent to find Sir John Franklin. Franklin left England in 1845 also in search of the Northwest Passage, never to return. Between 1848 and 1857 dozens of rescue parties were sent from England to look for the missing men.

Top

Jackson, Captain N.

Presumed Collector

Nothing is currently known about Captain Jackson.

Top

Mr. J.E. Roberts

Top

Nixon, Lieutenant

Primary Collector

The only information available is that Lieutenant Nixon was in northern Quebec in 1827.

Top

Rae, Dr. John

Primary Collector

Dr. John Ray (1813-1893) achieved notoriety - positive and negative - for charting unknown territories, particularly the remaining pieces (some people say 600 miles, others 1,100 miles) of the elusive Northwest Passage; and for his findings about the demise of the members of the Franklin Expedition. Before that, however, he had spent a decade, from 1833 to 1844, at Moose Factory as a medical officer and trader.

Growing up near Stromness in Scotland’s Orkney Islands where Hudson’s Bay Company ships stopped to draw fresh water, supplies and crew before the long transatlantic journey, Dr. John Rae was well-prepared for life in the Subarctic. Rae earned the respect of both the Cree and Hudson’s Bay Company personnel. At Moose Factory, intrigued by native ways, Rae attempted to learn Cree and to live off the land. He was also interested in Cree material culture, an interest that gave him a connection with Cree women: In his autobiography, he mentioned making patterns for bead and silk work for the women. From this, we have no way of knowing if the patterns were original designs or merely templates. He might, for instance, have been instrumental in introducing thistles as a floral motif in beadwork and silk embroidery.

In his position as medical officer and trader for the Hudson’s Bay Company, Rae visited other Cree communities where he would have established further contacts among Cree women. All these connections helped with obtaining items for trade.

Top

Roper, Dr. George

Primary Collector

All that is currently known about Dr. George Roper is that, in 1848, when he collected the items on display in the Virtual Collection, leggings and a hood, he was the physician on the Hudson’s Bay Company ship, the Prince Albert.

Top

Stuart, Charles

Primary Collector

Charles Stuart worked for the Hudson’s Bay Company in the Moose Factory and Temiscamingue areas. Born in Banffshire, Scotland in 1820, Stuart began his HBC career as a labourer in 1840; by 1868 he had become chief-trader. Stuart married Margaret Gladman, daughter of Joseph Gladman. The Gladmans were an old James Bay fur-trading family: Joseph, a mixed-blood, was chief-trader of the Rupert River District for twenty years, between 1844 and 1864. His grandfather, George Gladman Sr., was in charge at Rupert’s River post in the 1780s before being promoted to trader-in-chief of the Eastmain River District, a position he occupied through the first part of the 19th century. While George Sr. was chief of the Eastmain River District, his son George Jr. was employed at Eastmain as a clerk.

With their daughter Josephine, Charles and Margaret Stuart moved to Port Hope in 1872, at which point Stuart became the director of the Bank of Toronto. He died at Port Hope in 1907. The two bags collected by Stuart that are on display in the Virtual Collection could easily have been made by his wife, or one of the other Gladman women.

Top

Todd, Dr. John Lancelot

Secondary Collector

Possible Primary Collector: Members of either the Clouston or Sinclair family Dr. John Todd, associate professor of parasitology at McGill University in Montreal, probably acquired his contribution to the Virtual Collection, an “octopus” bag, as a result of having married into an old Hudson’s Bay Company family. For Dr. Todd was married to Marjorie Clouston, daughter of Moose Factory-born Sir Edward Clouston and Margaret (nee Miles) Clouston. Margaret was the daughter of Robert Seaborne Miles and his Cree wife Betsy Sinclair. Sir Edward was the son of James Steward Clouston and, most likely, a Cree mother. James Clouston, who entered the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1808 as a school teacher at Eastmain, is well known in the annals of HBC history as an explorer and a trader. In fact, the HBC’s inland trading posts owe their existence to the energetic surveys Clouston undertook between the James Bay coast and Mistissini, north almost to Ungava Bay and over to Richmond Gulf.

Judging by the extent to which HBC wives engaged in embroidery, there is a remote possibility that the octopus bag, the matching hood (in a private collection) and a strikingly similar bag in the Manitoba Museum were made by Margaret and/or her mother. Alternatively, they could have been made by the wife of James Clouston or members of her family.

Top

Turner, Lucien McShan

Primary Collector

From 1882 to 1884, Lucien McShan Turner (1848-1906) kept meteorological, atmospheric and tidal records for the Signal Corps of the United States army, at Kuujjuaq (formerly Fort Chimo). Turner spent his free time studying and recording details about the material culture, customs, stories and language of the aboriginal peoples - Inuit and Naskapi - who lived in the Ungava Bay region. His photographs are amongst the earliest taken in the Arctic. Turner also collected examples of aboriginal material culture, contributing significantly to the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. In contrast to the collecting practices of those who paid local people to produce materials and who rarely, if ever, visited their area of interest except during the summer, Turner lived at Kuujjuaq for two years, which gave him the opportunity to gather an enormous collection.

While Turner was in Kuujjuuaq, a number of Cree families from Fort George and Little Whale River, forced by a drastic decline in the caribou populations in their areas, relocated to the Ungava Bay region to hunt. Based on the presence of Crees, and the many Cree characteristics of the items collected by Lucien Turner, the two dolls in the Virtual Collection might have been made by Crees rather than Naskapi.

Top

Wilson, Mrs. Christopher

Secondary Collector

Nothing is currently known about Mrs. Wilson.

Top